Globalization has been a hot topic in business schools since the 1980s, particularly since Bill Clinton favored the North American Free Trade Agreement. NAFTA was opposed by Presidential candidate Ross Perot who argued:
We have got to stop sending jobs overseas. It’s pretty simple: If you’re paying $12, $13, $14 an hour for factory workers and you can move your factory south of the border, pay a dollar an hour for labor, … have no health care—that’s the most expensive single element in making a car—have no environmental controls, no pollution controls and no retirement, and you don’t care about anything but making money, there will be a giant sucking sound going south. … when [Mexico’s] jobs come up from a dollar an hour to six dollars an hour, and ours go down to six dollars an hour, and then it’s leveled again. But in the meantime, you’ve wrecked the country with these kinds of deal
In addition to losing middle-class jobs to Mexico and subsequent outsourcing of jobs to China, we have seen a perpetual decline in Money Velocity (GDP/Money Stock) since 1995.
The GINI ratio of US income inequality took a jump-up under Clinton and NAFTA. Although financialization contributed to income inequality as well.
Yes, globalization has helped suck jobs and wage growth out of the USA contributing to a decline in money velocity. So when snarky NY Times op-ed writer Paul Krugman admits that globalization is harmful to American workers (and money velocity), we better rethink what we are teaching in business schools.
Including over-reliance on The Federal Reserve to bail-out flawed Federal policies.
The spot metal has posted two straight weekly gains, and at least one technical signal is pointing to further increases. Bullion’s moving average convergence-divergence indicator, a gauge of price momentum, crossed above the so-called signal line last week for the first time since early August in a bullish sign for traders who follow price patterns.
The German banks Deutshe Bank and Commerzbank along with the Italian bank Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena crashed after the global financial crisis in 2008 despite an enormous spike in European Central Bank asset purchases.
On the other hand, US banks benefited from The Federal Reserve’s massive balance sheet expansion, at least until Covid hit in 2020.
Deutsche Bank’s 6% CoCo (Contingent Convertible) bond was issued in 2014. Contingent convertibles work in a fashion similar to traditional convertible bonds. They have a specific strike price that once breached, can convert the bond into equity or stock. The primary investors for CoCos are individual investors in Europe and Asia and private banks.